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Poland after the death of Jan III Sobieski. 

The prince, elector of Saxony from the Wettin dynasty, was elected king. He sat on the Polish throne as August II the Strong (1697-1733). There was no lasting relationship between Poland and Saxony. 

Northern war. 
1. Charles XII, defeating the Russian army under Narva, enters the Republic of Poland, treats it as a supply base. 
2. In 1704, Charles XII ordered to dethrone Augustus, who was an ally of Russia and choose S. Leszczyński. 
3. In 1704 the Sandomierz Confederation was formed, which stood up for Augustus. 
4. After the battle of Poltava (1709) Leszczyński leaves the country, August II returns, but with the consent of Tsar Peter I. 

The effects of the Northern War. 
a) Huge destruction. 
b) There were two kings.
c) Poland fell under the Russian protectorate. 

The conditions dictated by the Russian Tsar were adopted in the Sejm in 1717. This Sejm passed into the history of Poland as "silent" and remained proof of full dependence on Russia. Our country has become completely defenseless in Russia's surroundings. Austria and Prussia, which in the 18th century became powers. 

• Poland became the subject of a tender between neighbors. 
• Foreign monarchies entering the territory of the Republic of Poland, robberies, supporting and maintaining "liberum veto" 
• The treaty of three black eagles in 1733, in which Polish neighbors agreed who could and who could not stand as king of Poland. 

The first partition of Poland 1772. 
I. Political parties in Poland.
1) Hetman's (conservative): Karol Radziwiłł, Franciszek Potocki, Jan Branicki; against reforms. 
2) Familia: Czartoryski and Poniatowski families; they sought reforms. 
II. Reforms of S. Poniatowski. 
1) A substitute for government - "confederation of the king with cities" 
2) Treasury and military commissions. 
3) New coins have been minted.

The dissatisfaction of the nobility afraid of restricting the golden freedom increased, as well as the dissatisfaction of Russia and Prussia, who were afraid of strengthening the Polish state. The argument to oppose such a situation was the issue of dissidents (non-Catholics) who allegedly did not have political rights in Poland. A confederation was established in Słuck and Toruń (1767), demanding political rights, as well as a confederation of Radom Catholics defending religion. 
The result was: 
a) The king's reform plan collapsed. 
b) The entry of Russian troops into Poland. 
c) Cardinal rights (1767)
d) The Bar Confederation, formed against Russia's brutal interference in Poland's affairs. The fights lasted 4 years (1768-1772). They were interrupted by Katarzyna II, in consultation with Austria and Prussia, by the First Partition of Poland. 

III. And the partition of Poland. Seized Lands. 
• Russia - Belorussian lands, above the Daugava river and the upper Dnieper. 
• Prussia - Pomerania without Gdańsk and Toruń, Warmia and part of Great Britain. 
• Austria - a large part of Lesser Poland, Ukrainian lands up to the Zbrudź river. 

Resolutions of the partition of Poland (1773) 
• Partition of Polish lands was approved. 
• Establishing Perpetual Council 
• Established number of troops - up to 30,000 
• Customs and taxes reformed. 
• A National Education Commission was established. 

The Constitution of May 3, 1791.

I. The Four-Year Sejm (1788-1792) - In the atmosphere of freedom, without pressure from Russia, the Confederate Sejm met with the consent of Catherine II to block the liberum veto. S. Małachowski and K. Nestor Sapieha became the Marshals of the Sejm. 

II. Political parties. 
1) Hetman's (conservative): Ksawery Branicki, Seweryn Rzewuski, Szczęsny Potocki; they didn't want any reforms. 
2) Patriotic: S. August, Hugo Kołłątaj, S. Małachowski, J. Wybicki, Niemczewic, S. Staszic; they wanted reforms. 

1) Military - increasing the number of troops to 100,000 
2) Treasury - taxes for the nobility (10%), for the clergy (20%), for royal goods (50%)
3) City law - the right to purchase earthly goods, access to offices. Cities could send representatives to parliament, but without voting rights. Prohibition of detention in prison without a sentence, provisions prohibiting the nobility from engaging in trade and craft were abolished. 
Provisions of the Constitution of May 3, 1791. 
• Abolishing liberum veto and free election. 
• Sejm resolutions were to be adopted by a majority of votes. 
• A government was formed - the Law Guard - responsible to the Sejm. 
• The throne in Poland was to be hereditary. 
• Cities law and fiscal and military reform included. 
• Peasants have been under legal protection ever since. 

Targowica and the Second Partition of Poland.
The adoption of the Constitution of May 3 caused opposition from magnates (Branicki, Rzewuski, Potocki) who turned to Catherine II for military assistance. 

I. Confederation in Targowica, May 14, 1792 - defense of the Catholic faith, liberum veto, free election, and other old privileges. 

II. Polish-Russian war in 1792 in defense of the Constitution. 
1) Under Zieleńce- victory of Poles led by Józef Poniatowski. 
2) Under Dubienka - Poles' victory under Tadeusz Kościuszko. 
Having convinced himself of the impossibility of winning over powerful Russia, Stanisław August joined Targowica. It was the king's obvious betrayal. The constitutions were overthrown. 
1733- Second partition of Poland 
• Russia-Belarus, Ukraine, and Podolia
• Prussia - Gdańsk, Toruń, Wielkopolska, part of Mazovia 
The partition treaty was signed for "Silent Seym" in Grodno. Speaker of the Sejm Józef Ankwicz acknowledged the silence of MPs. 

Kościuszko Uprising and the Third Partition of Poland. 
I. Causes of the Kościuszko Uprising. 
1) Public outrage at the Second Partition of Poland. 
2) Reducing the number of troops to 15,000 
3) Preparation of insurrection by patriots in the country and abroad. 
4) entrusting the command of the uprising to Tadeusz Kościuszko. 
5) The password for the outbreak of the uprising was given by General Madaliński. 
II. The course of the Kościuszko Uprising.
1) 4.IV.1794- battle of Racławice - insurgents defeated much more numerous Russian troops. The battle was decided by scythemen. 
2) 17.IV.1794- Warsaw- Uprising insurgents were created from small craftsmen, servants, and merchants. 
3) 22.IV.1794-Vilnius - The leader of the uprising was Jakub Jasiński. Traitors without an orchard were hung. 
4) 7.V.1794- Uniwersał Połaniecki - personal freedom for the peasants and inviolability from the land, lowering serfdom by 1/3, and the families of peasant-soldiers freed him completely. 
5) 6.VI.1794- Szczekociny- defeat as a result of the attack of the neutral Prussia army. 
6) July and August 1794 - fighting around Warsaw - an uprising broke out in the Prussian partition, strengthened by the division of JH Dąbrowski, withdrawal of Prussian troops.
7) 10.X.1794- Maciejowice- Kościuszko lost the battle and was taken, prisoner. 
8) November 4, 1794 - the army of general Suwarow drew Praga by slaughtering the population, Warsaw capitulated, the end of the uprising. 

III Partition of Poland. 
• Russia- Belarus, Lithuania, most of Ukraine, 
• Austria- Kraków, lands after Pilice, Vistula, Bug 
• Prussia- Mazovia with Warsaw. 

Causes of the fall of the Republic of Poland in the 17th and 18th centuries. 
In the field of economy: 
• Destruction of the country caused by wars in the 17th century. 
• Population decrease due to wars, hunger, and diseases. 
• The decline of trade and craft, decreasing the number of city dwellers. 
• Void in the treasury, no funds to increase the army.
• Increasing the dimension of serfdom, total subordination to the peasants of the nobility. 
In the political field: 
• The system's defect was gentry privileges: free election, liberum veto, rococo, confederations. 
• The growing importance of magnates who do not care about the state's interests. 
• Unfair laws, arguing between the nobility. 
• The belief that changes in the state are unnecessary. 
In the field of foreign policy: 
• Interference of neighboring countries in Poland's affairs.